dass sie auch über den Sinn des „Hydraulic Fracturing“ streiten: Das als „ Fracking “, „Fracing“ oder „ Fraccing “ bezeichnete Verfahren, mit. Hydraulic Fracturing (engl. to fracture ‚aufbrechen', ‚aufreißen'; auch „Fracking“, „Hydrofracking“, „Fraccing“, „Fracing“ oder „Frac Jobs“ genannt) ist eine. Hydraulic Fracturing oder kurz Fracking ist eine Methode zur Erzeugung, Weitung und Stabilisierung von Rissen im Gestein einer Lagerstätte im tiefen Untergrund mit dem Ziel, die Permeabilität der Lagerstättengesteine zu erhöhen.
Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing (engl. to fracture ‚aufbrechen', ‚aufreißen'; auch „Fracking“, „Hydrofracking“, „Fraccing“, „Fracing“ oder „Frac Jobs“ genannt) ist eine. Hydraulic Fracturing (deutsch: hydraulische Risserzeugung oder allgemeiner: hydraulische Stimulation), kurz auch Fracking oder Fracing genannt - hinter. Hydraulic Fracturing, genannt auch Fracking, Fracing oder auch Fraccing, ist ein weltweit umstrittenes, teils verbotenes Verfahren zur Förderung von Gas aus.
Fracing Horizontal drilling VideoLight Your Water On Fire from Gas Drilling, Fracking
Natural Resources Defense Council. Accessed March 27, Environmental Protection Agency. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
By using Investopedia, you accept our. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Most gas shales are found in extensive seams hundreds or thousands of metres beneath the surface.
These seams can be accessed through conventional vertical drilling , but the most productive method is usually horizontal drilling.
In this technique a well is begun in the traditional way, with the auguring of a pilot hole usually some 6 to 15 metres 20 to 50 feet deep. This is lined with a steel pipe some 40 to 50 cm 16 to 20 inches in diameter, called the conductor casing, that is cemented into place.
From there the borehole is drilled straight down, passing through numerous rock layers that may include contaminable freshwater aquifers used for private wells or municipal water supply.
This portion of the borehole is lined with a cemented steel pipe called the surface casing. Depending on production needs or environmental regulations, another pipe, called the intermediate casing, may be cemented inside the surface casing.
From there drilling continues within the shale, sometimes for another thousand metres or more. When this lateral section of the well is drilled, the entire borehole is lined with yet another pipe called the production casing.
Once drilling and casing are completed, the production casing down the borehole is perforated by a tool that fires a series of small, aimed explosive charges through the wall of the pipe.
At the surface the drilling rig is removed, and the fracking process begins. Typically, a fleet of tanker trucks converges on the pad along with several trailer-mounted hydraulic pumpers, blenders, and chemical-storage tanks, a self-contained control vehicle or trailer packed with electronics, and other equipment.
The amount of fresh water used in fracking a single shale gas well varies greatly, depending on the size of the well and the amount of fracturing that has to be done to release the gas: industry and regulatory sources give figures that range from approximately 7.
In response, the shale gas industry insists that fracturing for shale gas consumes less water per thermal unit than is used in coal and even conventional oil production.
The water is obtained from sources determined by the market and regulations—e. Sometimes it is piped directly to the pad, and often it is stored there in steel tanks or in large, shallow ponds that have been excavated out of the ground and lined with plastic.
Using fresh water, a mixture of liquid and proppant is blended that consists of some 90 percent water, less than 10 percent sand, and 0. The precise formulas for these fracturing fluids are well-guarded company secrets, though the types of chemical compounds employed are generally known.
In a series of closely monitored operations, the fluid is pumped down the borehole and through the perforations in the production casing under great pressure, powerful enough to enlarge and prop open existing tiny fissures in the shale.
Once fracturing is complete, production tubing is inserted into the well. These liquids are diverted to the settling ponds or tanks for further treatment and disposal.
It recommended greater monitoring and said operators should observe a "traffic light" regime, with tremors of magnitude 0.
As exploratory drilling restarted in Lancashire, Cuadrilla said it will comply with that system and also issue a daily report about the previous day's drilling.
The firm says it expects to have an idea of "how much natural gas is likely to be recoverable" from the exploratory drilling by spring However, before shale gas can be extracted on a commercial basis, Cuadrilla would need to apply for new licences and permits.
In the United States it has significantly boosted domestic oil production and driven down gas prices.
It is estimated to have offered gas security to the US and Canada for about years, and has presented an opportunity to generate electricity at half the CO2 emissions of coal.
The industry suggests fracking of shale gas could contribute significantly to the UK's future energy needs. The Task Force on Shale Gas, an industry-funded body, said the UK needed to start fracking to establish the possible economic impact of shale gas - saying it could create thousands of jobs.
The extensive use of fracking in the US, where it has revolutionised the energy industry, has prompted environmental concerns. Fracking uses huge amounts of water, which must be transported to the site at significant environmental cost.
As well as earth tremor concerns, environmentalists say potentially carcinogenic chemicals may escape during drilling and contaminate groundwater around the fracking site.
Is fracking just a cover for a corporate water grab? Control the water, control the people. Fracking found to worsen air pollution, increasing respiratory disease.
PROOF: Earthquakes in Colorado and New Mexico a few years ago were caused by oil and gas wastewater injections. Dangerous, toxic, potentially catastrophic: Tailing ponds for copper mine quietly being planned upstream from the St.
Louis River, Lake Superior. High levels of radioactivity persist in Pennsylvania stream sediments 7 years after fracking wastewater disposal was restricted.
Fracking impacts water quality AND quantity downstream, raising concerns for aquatic ecosystems, recreation and drinking water.
More than chemicals found near fracking wells, some of them are known endocrine disruptors. Biden, on the other hand, is pushing for a transition towards renewable energy, though he has repeatedly said he does not want to ban fracking as a whole.
His green energy plan states a goal of running the U. Download The CBS News App Sign Up For Newsletters Stream CBSN Live Biden Administration Coronavirus Crisis Trump Impeachment U.
Capitol Attack Stimulus Checks. The issue of fracking in campaign.